Location Data Sources and Probe Technologies

StreetLight Data’s Metrics are currently derived from two types of locational “Big Data”: navigation-GPS data and Location-Based Services (LBS) data. StreetLight has incorporated and evaluated several other types of mobile data supply in the past, including cellular tower and ad-network derived data.

As the mobile data supply landscape has evolved and matured over time, we have determined that a combination of navigation-GPS data and LBS data is best suited to meet the needs of transportation planners. Our team phased out the use of cellular tower data because its low spatial precision and infrequent pinging frequency did not meet our standards for use in corridor studies, routing analyses, and many other Metrics. LBS data is suitable for these studies and offers a comparable sample size to cellular tower data.

As of July 2018, StreetLight’s data repositories process analytics for about 65M devices, or ~23% of the adult US and Canadian population, and about 12% of commercial truck trips. As detailed later in this report, sample size varies regionally, historically and by type of analysis conducted.
Our data supply grows each month as updated data sets are provided by suppliers. We currently use one major navigation-GPS data supplier, INRIX, and one LBS data supplier, Cuebiq. See Table 1, below, for more details on the different locational data sources StreetLight Data has recently evaluated.

 

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Table 1 – Overview of Big Data supply options for transportation analytics. StreetLight recommends and uses a mix-and-match approach currently focused on navigation-GPS and LBS data types.

Our Navigation-GPS and LBS Data Sources

In this section, we will explain why access to two different Big Data sources is uniquely beneficial for transportation professionals. First, it is important to note that StreetLight InSight is:

  • The first and only on-demand platform for planners to process Big Data into customized transportation analytics to their unique specifications, including the type of Big Data they would like to use.
  • The first and only online platform that automatically provides comprehensive sample size information for analyses. (See more information on sample size on page 8 of this report.)
    We selected navigation-GPS and LBS data because they are complementary resources that provide unique and valuable travel pattern information for transportation planning. See Figure 1 below for a visualization of these data sources.


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Figure 1 – Filtered visualization of a subset of unprocessed navigation-GPS and LBS data near a mall in Fremont, California.

Location-Based Services (LBS) Data

LBS data can be processed into personal travel patterns at a comprehensive scale. Its fairly high spatial precision and regular ping rate allow for capturing trips as well as activity patterns (i.e.: home and work locations), trip purpose, and demographics. This makes it an ideal alternative to data derived from cellular towers, which also has a large sample size but unfortunately lacks spatial precision and pings infrequently.

Cuebiq, our LBS data supplier, provides pieces of software (called SDKs) to developers of mobile apps to facilitate Location-Based Services. These smartphone apps include couponing, dating, weather, tourism, productivity, locating nearby services (i.e.: finding the closest restaurants, banks, or gas stations), and many more apps, all of which utilize their users’ location in the physical world as part of their value. The apps collect anonymous user locations when they are operating in the foreground. In addition, these apps may collect anonymous user locations when operating in the background. This “background” data collection occurs when the device is moving. LBS software collects data with WiFi proximity, a-GPS and several other technologies. In fact, locations may be collected when devices are without cell coverage or in airplane mode. Additionally, all the data that StreetLight uses has better than 20-meter spatial precision. (Similarly, our partner INRIX collects some LBS data from navigation-oriented smart phone apps).

Navigation-GPS Data

Navigation-GPS data has a smaller sample size than LBS data, but it does differentiate commercial truck trips from personal vehicle trips. This makes navigation-GPS data ideal for commercial travel pattern analyses. Navigation-GPS data is also suitable for very fine resolution personal vehicle travel analyses (e.g.: speed along a very short road segment) because of its extremely high spatial precision and very frequent ping rate.

INRIX, our navigation-GPS data supplier, provides data that comes from commercial fleet navigation systems, navigation-GPS devices in personal vehicles, and turn-by-turn navigation smartphone apps. (These apps produce data that are like the LBS data described above). Segmented analytics for medium-duty and heavy-duty commercial trucks are available. For commercial trucks, if the vehicle’s on-board fleet management system is within INRIX’s partner system, INRIX (and thus StreetLight) will collect a ping every one to three minutes whenever the vehicle is on, even if the driver is not actively using navigation.

For personal vehicles, if the vehicle is in INRIX’s partner system and has a navigation console, INRIX (and thus StreetLight) will collect a “ping” every few seconds whenever the vehicle is on, even if the driver is not actively using the navigation system. This provides a very complete picture of vehicles’ travel patterns and certainty that the trips are in vehicles.

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